Monday, August 4, 2014

Top Endocrine Publications of 2013: The Canine Adrenal Gland

I've decide to take a break from my review of the endocrine abstracts presented at the 2014 ACVIM forum and turn back to my review of the canine and feline endocrine publications of 2012. So in the next 2 posts, I'll cover the disorders of the canine and feline adrenal gland.

Listed below are 55 research papers written in 2013 that deal with a variety of adrenal gland issues of clinical importance in dogs.

These range from the investigations of trilostane protocols used in the treatment of dogs with Cushing's disease (1,7,12,23) to the pathogenesis, clinical features, or outcome of dogs with adrenal tumors (2,4,31-34); from adrenal imaging in normal dogs and dogs with Cushing's syndrome (3,16,24,46) to investigations involving diagnosis or treatment of hypoadrenocorticism (5,18,36,37,50); and from studies dealing with diagnostic testing for hyperadrenocorticism (6,8-11,14,42) to research studies investigating the effect of "stress" on adrenal function in dogs (15,45,49,51).

Other research studies involved diagnostic testing for pheochromocytoma in dogs (21,22) to reports of extra-adrenal paraganglioma or chemodectomas in dogs (25,27); and from studies of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (38,39) to studies of the complications of Cushing's syndrome, including hypercoagulability (43,44,47,48) and sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (52).

As you can see from all of these many publications, it was a good year to study the canine adrenal gland!

  1. Arenas C, Melian C, Perez-Alenza MD. Evaluation of 2 trilostane protocols for the treatment of canine pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism: twice daily versus once daily. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:1478-1485. 
  2. Arenas C, Perez-Alenza D, Melian C. Clinical features, outcome and prognostic factors in dogs diagnosed with non-cortisol-secreting adrenal tumours without adrenalectomy: 20 cases (1994-2009). Vet Rec 2013;173:501. 
  3. Bargellini P, Orlandi R, Paloni C, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics of adrenal glands in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2013;54:283-292. 
  4. Barrera JS, Bernard F, Ehrhart EJ, et al. Evaluation of risk factors for outcome associated with adrenal gland tumors with or without invasion of the caudal vena cava and treated via adrenalectomy in dogs: 86 cases (1993-2009). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:1715-1721. 
  5. Bates JA, Shott S, Schall WD. Lower initial dose desoxycorticosterone pivalate for treatment of canine primary hypoadrenocorticism. Aust Vet J 2013;91:77-82.
  6. Behrend EN, Kooistra HS, Nelson R, et al. Diagnosis of spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticism: 2012 ACVIM consensus statement (small animal). J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:1292-1304. 
  7. Braun C, Boretti FS, Reusch CE, et al. Comparison of two treatment regimens with trilostane in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2013;155:551-558. 
  8. Bromel C, Nelson RW, Feldman EC, et al. Serum inhibin concentration in dogs with adrenal gland disease and in healthy dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:76-82. 
  9. Bryan HM, Adams AG, Invik RM, et al. Hair as a meaningful measure of baseline cortisol levels over time in dogs. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2013;52:189-196. 
  10. Bugbee AC, Smith JR, Ward CR. Effect of dexamethasone or synthetic ACTH administration on endogenous ACTH concentrations in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:1415-1420. 
  11. Burkhardt WA, Boretti FS, Reusch CE, et al. Evaluation of baseline cortisol, endogenous ACTH, and cortisol/ACTH ratio to monitor trilostane treatment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:919-923. 
  12. Cho KD, Kang JH, Chang D, et al. Efficacy of low- and high-dose trilostane treatment in dogs (< 5 kg) with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:91-98. 
  13. Claude AK, Miller WW, Beyer AM, et al. Quantification and comparison of baseline cortisol levels between aqueous and plasma from healthy anesthetized hound dogs utilizing mass spectrometry. Vet Ophthalmol 2014;17:57-62. 
  14. Corradini S, Accorsi PA, Boari A, et al. Evaluation of hair cortisol in the diagnosis of hypercortisolism in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:1268-1272. 
  15. Dalla Villa P, Barnard S, Di Fede E, et al. Behavioural and physiological responses of shelter dogs to long-term confinement. Vet Ital 2013;49:231-241. 
  16. de Chalus T, Combes A, Bedu AS, et al. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland measurements in healthy Yorkshire Terriers and Labrador Retrievers. Anat Histol Embryol 2013;42:57-64. 
  17. De Vries F, Leuschner J, Jilma B, et al. Establishment of a low dose canine endotoxemia model to test anti-inflammatory drugs: effects of prednisolone. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2013;26:861-869. 
  18. Floettmann JE, Buckett LK, Turnbull AV, et al. ACAT-selective and nonselective DGAT1 inhibition: adrenocortical effects--a cross-species comparison. Toxicol Pathol 2013;41:941-950. 3
  19. Frank CB, Valentin SY, Scott-Moncrieff JC, et al. Correlation of inflammation with adrenocortical atrophy in canine adrenalitis. J Comp Pathol 2013;149:268-279. 
  20. Frank LA, Watson JB. Treatment of alopecia X with medroxyprogesterone acetate. Veterinary Dermatology 2013;24:624-e154. 
  21. Gostelow R, Bridger N, Syme HM. Plasma-free metanephrine and free normetanephrine measurement for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:83-90. 
  22. Green BA, Frank EL. Comparison of plasma free metanephrines between healthy dogs and 3 dogs with pheochromocytoma. Vet Clin Pathol 2013;42:499-503. 
  23. Griffies JD. Old or new? A comparison of mitotane and trilostane for the management of hyperadrenocorticism. Compend Contin Educ Vet 2013;35:E3. 
  24. Haers H, Daminet S, Smets PM, et al. Use of quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to detect diffuse renal changes in Beagles with iatrogenic hypercortisolism. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:70-77. 
  25. Hardcastle MR, Meyer J, McSporran KD. Pathology in practice. Carotid and aortic body carcinomas (chemodectomas) in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:175-177. 
  26. Huang HP, Lien YH. Treatment of canine generalized demodicosis associated with hyperadrenocorticism with spot-on moxidectin and imidacloprid. Acta Vet Scand 2013;55:40. 
  27. Ilha MR, Styer EL. Extra-adrenal retroperitoneal paraganglioma in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 2013;25:803-806. 
  28. Ishibashi M, Akiyoshi H, Iseri T, et al. Skin conductance reflects drug-induced changes in blood levels of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline in dogs. J Vet Med Sci 2013;75:809-813. 
  29. Kemppainen RJ. Inoculation of dogs with a recombinant ACTH vaccine. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:1499-1505. 
  30. Kol A, Nelson RW, Gosselin RC, et al. Characterization of thrombelastography over time in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. Vet J 2013;197:675-681. 
  31. Kool MM, Galac S, Kooistra HS, et al. Expression of angiogenesis-related genes in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2013. 
  32. Kool MM, Galac S, Spandauw CG, et al. Activating mutations of GNAS in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:1486-1492. 
  33. Larson RN, Schmiedt CW, Wang A, et al. Adrenal gland function in a dog following unilateral complete adrenalectomy and contralateral partial adrenalectomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:1398-1404. 
  34. Lee HC, Jung DI, Moon JH, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of primary adrenal hemangioma in a dog. Res Vet Sci 2013;95:572-575. 
  35. Mak G, Allen J. Simultaneous pheochromocytoma and third-degree atrioventricular block in 2 dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2013;23:610-614. 
  36. Massey J, Boag A, Short AD, et al. MHC class II association study in eight breeds of dog with hypoadrenocorticism. Immunogenetics 2013;65:291-297. 
  37. McGonigle KM, Randolph JF, Center SA, et al. Mineralocorticoid before glucocorticoid deficiency in a dog with primary hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2013;49:54-57. 
  38. Mochel JP, Fink M, Peyrou M, et al. Chronobiology of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in dogs: relation to blood pressure and renal physiology. Chronobiol Int 2013;30:1144-1159. 
  39. Mochel JP, Peyrou M, Fink M, et al. Capturing the dynamics of systemic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) peptides heightens the understanding of the effect of benazepril in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2013;36:174-180. 
  40. Mongillo P, Prana E, Gabai G, et al. Effect of age and sex on plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in the dog (Canis familiaris). Res Vet Sci 2014;96:33-38.
  41. Naan EC, Kirpensteijn J, Dupre GP, et al. Innovative approach to laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of unilateral adrenal gland tumors in dogs. Veterinary Surgery 2013;42:710-715. 
  42. Ouschan C, Kuchar A, Mostl E. Measurement of cortisol in dog hair: a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of hypercortisolism. Vet Derm 2013;24:428-431, e493-424. 
  43. Pace SL, Creevy KE, Krimer PM, et al. Assessment of coagulation and potential biochemical markers for hypercoagulability in canine hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:1113-1120. 
  44. Park FM, Blois SL, Abrams-Ogg AC, et al. Hypercoagulability and ACTH-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:1136-1142. 
  45. Perego R, Proverbio D, Spada E. Increases in heart rate and serum cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs are positively correlated with an indoor waiting-room environment. Vet Clin Pathol 2014;43:67-71. 
  46. Pey P, Daminet S, Smets PM, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal glands in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:417-425. 
  47. Romao FG, Campos EF, Mattoso CR, et al. Hemostatic profile and thromboembolic risk in healthy dogs treated with prednisone: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Vet Res 2013;9:268. 
  48. Rose L, Dunn ME, Bedard C. Effect of canine hyperadrenocorticism on coagulation parameters. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:207-211. 
  49. Shiverdecker MD, Schiml PA, Hennessy MB. Human interaction moderates plasma cortisol and behavioral responses of dogs to shelter housing. Physiol Behav 2013;109:75-79. 
  50. Short AD, Boag A, Catchpole B, et al. A candidate gene analysis of canine hypoadrenocorticism in 3 dog breeds. J Hered 2013;104:807-820. 
  51. Siniscalchi M, McFarlane JR, Kauter KG, et al. Cortisol levels in hair reflect behavioural reactivity of dogs to acoustic stimuli. Res Vet Sci 2013;94:49-54. 
  52. Stuckey JA, Pearce JW, Giuliano EA, et al. Long-term outcome of sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;243:1425-1431. 
  53. Winnick JJ, Ramnanan CJ, Saraswathi V, et al. Effects of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 inhibition on hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2013;304:E747-756. 
  54. Yu J, Fu X, Chang M, et al. The effects of intra-abdominal hypertension on the secretory function of canine adrenal glands. PLoS One 2013;8:e81795. 
  55. Zeugswetter FK, Neffe F, Schwendenwein I, et al. Configuration of antibodies for assay of urinary cortisol in dogs influences analytic specificity. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2013;45:98-104.


Gabe Konieczki said...

Hello Dr. Peterson, I am a small animal veterinarian in Grosse Pointe, Michigan, and I have a question regarding a dog who I have diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism (LDDST results were consistent with hyperadrenocorticism but left ambiguity between PDH and ADH). He is 8 kg, 8 years old, a neutered male, Yorkshire Terrier who is currently on 30 mg of Trilostane PO q 24 hours. He was originally on 10 mg PO a 24 hours, but I upped his dose after PU/PD was persistent at the ~12 week recheck. My last ACTH stim test had a pre- sample of 0.3 and a post- sample of 1.8. I just ran a CBC and chemistry with UA and urine culture/MIC, and found a high ALP (650), and 200-300 mg/dL of protein in the urine, with a USG of 1.011.

The issue is that the PU/PD is persistent, inspite of my therapy. I am thinking that the cortisol production is successfully suppressed with the Trilostane, and so I am considering further evaluation into the kidneys with a cortisol:creatinine ratio, and maybe running an ionizand Calcium to assess for hypercalcemia (total Calcium is near the upper limit on chemistry). Any input from you is greatly appreciated.

Also, I wonder about your opinion regarding the differentiation between ADH and PDH: is it entirely necessary? Is the surgical (or radiation) treatment option superior regarding outcomes?

- Thank you again for your time,
Gabriel Konieczki, DVM

Dr. Mark E. Peterson said...

I'd split the dose of trilostane into 10 mg BID and make sure it's being given with food. No matter what the cause, the trilostane is working, but maybe just not lasting long enough. The dog still could have hypercalcemia or concurrent DI but give it another 2-3 months on BID first.