Monday, December 3, 2012

Top Endocrine Publications of 2011: The Canine Adrenal Gland

In my seventh compilation of the canine and feline endocrine publications of 2011, I’m moving on to disorders of the canine adrenal gland.

Listed below are 35 research papers written in 2011 that deal with a variety of adrenal gland issues of clinical importance in dogs.

These range from the investigations of typical (13,27), atypical (24,28), or pseudo-hypoadrenocorticism (32) to a case report of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism (16); from diagnostic testing for Cushing's syndrome (5,10,11,34) to imaging studies for evaluation and differentiation of adrenal disease (4,23,25); from studies of the relationship between gallbladder mucoceles and glucocorticoid excess (15,21) to and to dermatologic aspects of Cushing's disease (35).

Other research studies investigated the use of trilostane (3,8,12,20) to an overview of adrenalectomy for dogs with adrenal gland tumors (17,19); from complications associated with transsphenoidal surgery (31) to the effect of lignans and melatonin treatment on adrenocortical secretion (7); and finally, the report of an experimental new medical approach to treating Cushing's disease using a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to block epidermal growth factor receptor located on the pituitary adenoma, which inhibited corticotroph tumor cell proliferation and induced apotosis (9,33).

Other studies include the investigation of a radionuclide therapy for canine pheochromocytoma (2) to a case report of pheochromocytoma diagnosed by use of magnetic resonance imaging (29).

  1. Blois SL, Dickie E, Kruth SA, et al. Multiple endocrine diseases in dogs: 35 cases (1996-2009). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;238:1616-1621. 
  2. Bommarito DA, Lattimer JC, Selting KA, et al. Treatment of a malignant pheochromocytoma in a dog using 131I metaiodobenzylguanidine. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2011;47:e188-194. 
  3. Burkhardt WA, Guscetti F, Boretti FS, et al. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, but not trilostane, causes severe adrenal hemorrhage, vacuolization, and apoptosis in rats. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2011;40:155-164. 
  4. Choi J, Kim H, Yoon J. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland measurements in clinically normal small breed dogs and comparison with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Med Sci 2011;73:985-989. 
  5. Cisneros LE, Palumbo MI, Mortari AC, et al. What is your neurologic diagnosis? Hyperadrenocorticism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;238:1247-1249. 
  6. de Brito Galvao JF, Chew DJ. Metabolic complications of endocrine surgery in companion animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2011;41:847-868. 
  7. Fecteau KA, Eiler H, Oliver JW. Effect of combined lignan phytoestrogen and melatonin treatment on secretion of steroid hormones by adrenal carcinoma cells. Am J Vet Res 2011;72:675-680. 
  8. Feldman EC. Evaluation of twice-daily lower-dose trilostane treatment administered orally in dogs with naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;238:1441-1451. 
  9. Fukuoka H, Cooper O, Ben-Shlomo A, et al. EGFR as a therapeutic target for human, canine, and mouse ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. J Clin Invest 2011;121:4712-4721. 
  10. Gilor C, Graves TK. Interpretation of laboratory tests for canine Cushing's syndrome. Top Companion Anim Med 2011;26:98-108. 
  11. Graves TK. When normal is abnormal: keys to laboratory diagnosis of hidden endocrine disease. Top Companion Anim Med 2011;26:45-51. 
  12. Helm JR, McLauchlan G, Boden LA, et al. A comparison of factors that influence survival in dogs with adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism treated with mitotane or trilostane. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:251-260. 
  13. Hughes AM, Bannasch DL, Kellett K, et al. Examination of candidate genes for hypoadrenocorticism in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers. Vet J 2011;187:212-216. 
  14. Klose TC, Creevy KE, Brainard BM. Evaluation of coagulation status in dogs with naturally occurring canine hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2011;21:625-632. 
  15. Kook PH, Schellenberg S, Rentsch KM, et al. Effect of twice-daily oral administration of hydrocortisone on the bile acids composition of gallbladder bile in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2011;72:1607-1612. 
  16. Kreissler JJ, Langston CE. A case of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in the dog. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:944-948. 
  17. Lang JM, Schertel E, Kennedy S, et al. Elective and emergency surgical management of adrenal gland tumors: 60 cases (1999-2006). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2011;47:428-435. 
  18. Martin LG. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2011;41:767-782.
  19. Massari F, Nicoli S, Romanelli G, et al. Adrenalectomy in dogs with adrenal gland tumors: 52 cases (2002-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:216-221. 
  20. McGraw AL, Whitley EM, Lee HP, et al. Determination of the concentrations of trilostane and ketotrilostane that inhibit ex vivo canine adrenal gland synthesis of cortisol, corticosterone, and aldosterone. Am J Vet Res 2011;72:661-665. 
  21. Norwich A. Gallbladder mucocele in a 12-year-old cocker spaniel. Can Vet J 2011;52:319-321. 
  22. Notari L, Mills D. Possible behavioral effects of exogenous corticosteroids on dog behavior: a preliminary investigation. J Vet Behavior 2011;6:321-327. 
  23. Pey P, Vignoli M, Haers H, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the normal canine adrenal gland. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2011;52:560-567. 
  24. Richartz J, Neiger R. Hypoadrenocorticism without classic electrolyte abnormalities in seven dogs. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2011;39:163-169. 
  25. Rodriguez Pineiro MI, de Fornel-Thibaud P, Benchekroun G, et al. Use of computed tomography adrenal gland measurement for differentiating ACTH dependence from ACTH independence in 64 dogs with hyperadenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:1066-1074. 
  26. Ryan VH, Trayhurn P, Hunter L, et al. 11-Hydroxy-beta-steroid dehydrogenase gene expression in canine adipose tissue and adipocytes: stimulation by lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2011;41:150-161. 
  27. Seth M, Drobatz KJ, Church DB, et al. White blood cell count and the sodium to potassium ratio to screen for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:1351-1356. 
  28. Snead E, Vargo C, Myers S. Glucocorticoid-dependent hypoadrenocorticism with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia mimicking sepsis in a Labrador retriever dog. Can Vet J 2011;52:1129-1134. 
  29. Spall B, Chen AV, Tucker RL, et al. Imaging diagnosis-metastatic adrenal pheochromocytoma in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2011;52:534-537. 
  30. Taoda T, Hara Y, Masuda H, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of pituitary posterior lobe displacement in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Med Sci 2011;73:725-731. 
  31. Teshima T, Hara Y, Taoda T, et al. Central diabetes insipidus after transsphenoidal surgery in dogs with Cushing's disease. J Vet Med Sci 2011;73:33-39. 
  32. Venco L, Valenti V, Genchi M, et al. A dog with pseudo-Addison disease associated with trichuris vulpis Infection. J Parasitol Res 2011;2011:682039. 
  33. Wondisford FE. A new medical therapy for Cushing disease? J Clin Invest 2011;121:4621-4623. 
  34. Zeugswetter F, Pagitz M, Hittmair K, et al. Diagnostic efficacy of plasma ACTH-measurement by a chemiluminometric assay in canine hyperadrenocorticism. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2011;153:111-116. 
  35. Zur G, White SD. Hyperadrenocorticism in 10 dogs with skin lesions as the only presenting clinical signs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2011;47:419-427. 


Unknown said...

Hello Dr.

Could you clarify something for me please? In many of the posts trilostane dosage is said to be for example, 30 mg twice a day. Does that mean 6o mg in total for the day, or does it mean 15 mg given on two occasions?

Thank You


Dr. Mark E. Peterson said...

30 mg twice a day is 60 mg per day.

30 mg divided into twice a day administration would be 15 mg given morning and night.

Unknown said...

Hello Dr Peterson,

My cushings dog is taking trilostane for the cushings but arthritis is becoming a problem on front leg. Metacam was discontinued as it made my dog vomit. Neurontin has been subscribed (makes her a bit sleepy, groggy) Happy to continue but ...

Was wondering whether there are any nsaid creams for humans arthritis that would be suitable for putting on dog's leg? maybe with a bandage over the top. I have read there are some problems with certain nsaid creams and dogs.

Or lignocaine cream 5% ? (but that is quite expensive)

Maybe the neurontin plus nsaid cream as I am not that keen to increase the dose of neurontin so that she becomes more groggy.

Thank You for your consideration and your website.
Karen (and Poppy)

Dr. Mark E. Peterson said...

Sorry, this is outside of my area of expertise... Maybe someone else will see your post and can help you.